About WordPress. As an animal lover and environmental activist, it would mean the world to me if you donated a small sum to WWF. It is a mixture of a variety of other indicators and can be used to measure the approximate pH of a solution, however a more accurate value can be obtained using a pH probe When universal indicator is added to a solution it changes to a colour that shows the pH of the solution (using the ph scale) Universal indicator and the pH scale Universal indicator is supplied as a solution or as universal indicator paper . 1.40 Explain, using dot and cross diagrams, the fo... 4.21 Explain that a catalyst speeds up a reaction... 4.20 Explain the effects of changes in surface ar... 4.19 Understand the term activation energy and re... 4.18 Describe the effects of changes in surface a... 4.17 Describe experiments to investigate the effe... 4.9 Describe experiments to carry out acid-alkali... 4.8 Describe experiments to prepare insoluble sal... 4.7 Describe experiments to prepare soluble salts... 4.6 Understand the general rules for predicting t... 2.36 Understand the sacrificial protection of iro... 2.35 Describe how the rusting of iron may be prev... 2.34 Describe the conditions under which iron rusts. magnesium oxide) or by reduction (e.g. For injection mold makers, tool and die makers and precision machinists there are essentially two types of indicators: test indicators and plunger type, or travel indicators. Dial Indicator Manufacturers All of these are known for their quality and repeatability. Universal indicator pH solution is used in conjunction with the chart. Universal indicator is a combination of dyes that is green to begin with but changes colour when added to a solution. 1.47 Explain the electrical conductivity and malle... 1.46 Understand that a metal can be described as ... 1.45 Explain how the uses of diamond and graphite... 1.44 Draw diagrams representing the positions of t... 1.43 Explain the high melting and boiling points o... 1.42 Explain why substances with simple molecular ... 1.41 Understand that substances with simple molecu... 1.39 Understand covalent bonding as a strong attra... 1.38 Describe the formation of a covalent bond by ... 1.37 Draw a diagram to represent the positions of ... 1.36 Describe an ionic crystal as a giant three-di... 1.35 Understand the relationship between ionic cha... 1.34 Understand that ionic compounds have high mel... 1.33 Understand ionic bonding as a strong electros... 1.32 Explain, using dot and cross diagrams, the fo... 1.31 Deduce the charge of an ion from the electron... 1.30 recall the charges of common ions in this spe... 1.29 Understand oxidation as the loss of electrons... 1.28 Describe the formation of ions by the gain or... 1.22 Use the state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq) ... 1.21 Write word equations and balanced chemical eq... 1.15 Deduce the number of outer electrons in a mai... 1.14 Deduce the electronic configurations of the f... 1.13 Understand that the Periodic Table is an arra... 1.12 Calculate the relative atomic mass of an elem... 1.10 recall the relative mass and relative charge ... 1.11 understand the terms atomic number, mass numb... 1.5 Understand the terms atom and molecule. Recommended Use: For manufacturing, industrial, and laboratory use only. Solution. Students will be expected to name compounds containing up to six carbon atoms, 4:05 understand how to write the possible structural and displayed formulae of an organic molecule given its molecular formula, 4:06 understand how to classify reactions of organic compounds as substitution, addition and combustion. Methyl orange or phenolphthalein are used because they give a sudden change in colour at neutralisation which makes it easier to see the end point of the titration. Usually with the U.I the alkali substance colours are at the right end of the chart, in cool colours such as green or blue. If you want you want numbers more accurate, too bad. Now choose any one of the solutions in the beaker by clicking on it. To measure the strength of an acid or a base solution we use universal indicators. Phenolphthalein adopts at least four different states in aqueous solution as … Water molecules (H 2 O) can interact with one another to form H 3 O + ions and OH − ions. An indicator is a substance that has more than one colour form depending on the pH. Because universal indicator can turn a range of different colours, it is helpful in specifying the strength of an acid or alkali. 2:30 describe the use of Universal Indicator to measure the approximate pH value of an aqueous solution | TutorMyself Chemistry. 0 votes Big Idea Acid-base indicators, such as red cabbage juice, turn different colors in acidic and basic solutions due to a pigment molecule called anthocyanin. It is used to determine the acidity or base level of a substance. Moreover universal indicators are also capable of distinguish the strength of acids and bases. A common mixture includes thymol blue, methyl red, bromothymol blue, and phenolphthalein. 4.4 define acids as sources of hydrogen ions, H+,... 2.25 Describe the reactions of dilute hydrochloric... 4.3 Describe the use of universal indicator to me... 2.24 Understand that carbon dioxide is a greenhou... 2.23 Explain the use of carbon dioxide in carbona... 4.2 Understand how the pH scale, from 0–14, can b... 2.22 Describe the properties of carbon dioxide, l... 2.21 Describe the formation of carbon dioxide fro... 4.1 Describe the use of the indicators litmus, ph... 2.20 Describe the laboratory preparation of carbo... 2.19 Describe the reactions of magnesium, carbon ... 2.18 Describe the laboratory preparation of oxyge... 2.17 Explain how experiments involving the reacti... 2.16 Recall the gases present in air and their ap... 2.15 Understand these displacement reactions as r... 2.14 Describe experiments to demonstrate that a m... 2.13 Describe the relative reactivities of the ele... 2.12 Explain, in terms of dissociation, why hydrog... 2.11 Understand the difference between hydrogen ch... 2.10 Make predictions about the properties of oth... 2.9 Recall the colours and physical states of the... 2.8 Explain the relative reactivities of the elem... 2.7 Describe the relative reactivities of the ele... 2.6 Describe the reactions of these elements with... 2.5 Understand that the noble gases (Group 0) are ... 2.4 Understand why elements in the same group of ... 2.3 Explain the classification of elements as met... 2.2 Recall the positions of metals and non-metals ... 2.1 Understand the terms group and period. Universal indicator displays the entire rainbow of colors from low pH to high pH (see Figure 2). Here is a closer look of the pH papers before and after dipping them in the lemon juice and cleaning detergent (Figure 10): Product:)Universal)indicator) RevisionDate:)01/15/2016) 1/10)) Product Identifier: Universal Indicator Product Code(s): NC-1602, U1000 Synonyms: Mixture. Universal indicator is a mixture of different dyes which change colour in a gradual way over a range of pH. First, you should estimate the pH at the equivalence point, at which the solution is 0.0500 M \(\ce{NaA}\). tutorMyself Chemistry is a non-commercial tool to support learning for Edexcel iGCSE Chemistry at one of Britain's top public schools. Universal indicator, which is actually a mixture of several indicators, displays a variety of colours over a wide pH range so it can be used to determine an approximate pH of a solution but is not used for titrations. So, the disadvantage has to do the the latter two points. Universal Indicator is used to test for the acidity of a solution. On a universal indicator test, HCl would come out as red. The indicators are chosen so mixing a few drops with a solution will produce a color that can be associated with an approximate pH value. Universal indicator is a substance which tells you by means of a colour change whether a substance is an acid or a base. Y… There are many universal indicators available, but the most common universal indicator is a mixture of following pH indicators. Acid-base indicators show only one or two colour change but universal indicator shows a range of colours in different media of different pH. You then use the pH chart to find out whether your substance is alkali(ne) or acid. This will enable you to select a more exact indicator which covers the indicated range but which reads to 0.1pH units. There are two steps in deciding which indicator to use for a … A basic solution would be a more blue-green, or green depending on the concentration. Examples of … Therefore, it can be used to determine the acidity or the alkalinity of a solution. If you are using universal indicator solution, then take 3 - 4 mL each of the test solution (about one fourth of test tube) into separate labelled test tubes. Universal indicator is a type of pH indicator that gives its color changes for a wide variety of pH values ranging from 0 to 14. Bases cause universal indicator to change from green toward purple. Knowledge of cis/trans or E/Z notation is not required, 4:27 describe the reactions of alkenes with bromine, to produce dibromoalkanes, 4:28 describe how bromine water can be used to distinguish between an alkane and an alkene, 4:29 (Triple only) know that alcohols contain the functional group −OH, 4:30 (Triple only) understand how to draw structural and displayed formulae for methanol, ethanol, propanol (propan-1-ol only) and butanol (butan-1-ol only), and name each compound, the names propanol and butanol are acceptable, 4:31 (Triple only) know that ethanol can be oxidised by: burning in air or oxygen (complete combustion), reaction with oxygen in the air to form ethanoic acid (microbial oxidation), heating with potassium dichromate(VI) in dilute sulfuric acid to form ethanoic acid, 4:32 (Triple only) know that ethanol can be manufactured by: 1) reacting ethene with steam in the presence of a phosphoric acid catalyst at a temperature of about 300⁰C and a pressure of about 60–70atm; and 2) the fermentation of glucose, in the absence of air, at an optimum temperature of about 30⁰C and using the enzymes in yeast, 4:33 (Triple only) understand the reasons for fermentation, in the absence of air, and at an optimum temperature, 4:34 (Triple only) know that carboxylic acids contain the functional group -COOH, 4:35 (Triple only) understand how to draw structural and displayed formulae for unbranched- chain carboxylic acids with up to four carbon atoms in the molecule, and name each compound, 4:36 (Triple only) describe the reactions of aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids with metals and metal carbonates, 4:37 (Triple only) know that vinegar is an aqueous solution containing ethanoic acid, 4:38 (Triple only) know that esters contain the functional group -COO-, 4:39 (Triple only) know that ethyl ethanoate is the ester produced when ethanol and ethanoic acid react in the presence of an acid catalyst, 4:40 (Triple only) understand how to write the structural and displayed formulae of ethyl ethanoate, 4:41 (Triple only) understand how to write the structural and displayed formulae of an ester, given the name or formula of the alcohol and carboxylic acid from which it is formed and vice versa, 4:42 (Triple only) know that esters are volatile compounds with distinctive smells and are used as food flavourings and in perfumes, 4:43 (Triple only) practical: prepare a sample of an ester such as ethyl ethanoate, 4:44 know that an addition polymer is formed by joining up many small molecules called monomers, 4:45 understand how to draw the repeat unit of an addition polymer, including poly(ethene), poly(propene), poly(chloroethene) and (poly)tetrafluroethene, 4:46 understand how to deduce the structure of a monomer from the repeat unit of an addition polymer and vice versa, 4:47 explain problems in the disposal of addition polymers, including: their inertness and inability to biodegrade, the production of toxic gases when they are burned, 4:48 (Triple only) know that condensation polymerisation, in which a dicarboxylic acid reacts with a diol, produces a polyester and water. A universal indicator is a blend of pH indicator solutions designed to identify the pH of a solution over a wide range of values. Powered by, It is a mixture of a variety of other indicators and can be used to measure the approximate pH of a solution, however a more accurate value can be obtained using a pH probe, is added to a solution it changes to a colour that shows the pH of the solution (using the ph scale), If you would like to contact me to use my work or for any other reason, click. Summary. A Universal Indicator is a mixture of indicators which give a gradual change in colour over a wide pH range - the pH of a solution can be approximately identified when a few drops of universal indicator are mixed with the solution. It will measure at best to an accuracy of 1.0 pH unit. Either Indicator can be used for a Strong Alkali + Strong Acid.. Universal indicator is not usually used for a titration because it changes gradually giving different colours for a different pH. copper(II) oxide), 1:37 understand how ions are formed by electron loss or gain, 1:38 know the charges of these ions: metals in Groups 1, 2 and 3, non-metals in Groups 5, 6 and 7, Ag⁺, Cu²⁺, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺, hydrogen (H⁺), hydroxide (OH⁻), ammonium (NH₄⁺), carbonate (CO₃²⁻), nitrate (NO₃⁻), sulfate (SO₄²⁻), 1:39 write formulae for compounds formed between the ions listed in 1:38, 1:40 draw dot-and-cross diagrams to show the formation of ionic compounds by electron transfer, limited to combinations of elements from Groups 1, 2, 3 and 5, 6, 7 only outer electrons need be shown, 1:41 understand ionic bonding in terms of electrostatic attractions, 1:42 understand why compounds with giant ionic lattices have high melting and boiling points, 1:43 Know that ionic compounds do not conduct electricity when solid, but do conduct electricity when molten and in aqueous solution, 1:44 know that a covalent bond is formed between atoms by the sharing of a pair of electrons, 1:45 understand covalent bonds in terms of electrostatic attractions, 1:46 understand how to use dot-and-cross diagrams to represent covalent bonds in: diatomic molecules, including hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, halogens and hydrogen halides, inorganic molecules including water, ammonia and carbon dioxide, organic molecules containing up to two carbon atoms, including methane, ethane, ethene and those containing halogen atoms, 1:47 explain why substances with a simple molecular structures are gases or liquids, or solids with low melting and boiling points. Universal indicator is a mixture of coloured compounds, which is used for simple testing of solutions. It also serves as a component of universal indicator, together with methyl red, bromothymol blue, and thymol blue. Also, they are single use so not good for continuous measurement. Knowledge of reaction mechanisms is not required, 4:07 know that crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, 4:08 describe how the industrial process of fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions, 4:09 know the names and uses of the main fractions obtained from crude oil: refinery gases, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and bitumen, 4:10 know the trend in colour, boiling point and viscosity of the main fractions, 4:11 know that a fuel is a substance that, when burned, releases heat energy, 4:12 know the possible products of complete and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons with oxygen in the air, 4:13 understand why carbon monoxide is poisonous, in terms of its effect on the capacity of blood to transport oxygen references to haemoglobin are not required, 4:14 know that, in car engines, the temperature reached is high enough to allow nitrogen and oxygen from air to react, forming oxides of nitrogen, 4:15 explain how the combustion of some impurities in hydrocarbon fuels results in the formation of sulfur dioxide, 4:16 understand how sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rain, 4:17 describe how long-chain alkanes are converted to alkenes and shorter-chain alkanes by catalytic cracking (using silica or alumina as the catalyst and a temperature in the range of 600–700⁰C), 4:18 explain why cracking is necessary, in terms of the balance between supply and demand for different fractions, 4:19 know the general formula for alkanes, 4:20 explain why alkanes are classified as saturated hydrocarbons, 4:21 understand how to draw the structural and displayed formulae for alkanes with up to five carbon atoms in the molecule, and to name the unbranched-chain isomers, 4:22 describe the reactions of alkanes with halogens in the presence of ultraviolet radiation, limited to mono-substitution knowledge of reaction mechanisms is not required, 4:23 know that alkenes contain the functional group >C=C<, 4:24 know the general formula for alkenes, 4:25 explain why alkenes are classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons, 4:26 understand how to draw the structural and displayed formulae for alkenes with up to four carbon atoms in the molecule, and name the unbranched-chain isomers. Acid-base indicator is defined. There are several different formulas for universal indicators, but most are based on a patented formula developed by Yamada in 1933. A more accurate value can be … Universal indicator is a mixture of many indicators which gives diferent colours at different pH values of entire scale. The term intermolecular forces of attraction can be used to represent all forces between molecules, 1:48 explain why the melting and boiling points of substances with simple molecular structures increase, in general, with increasing relative molecular mass, 1:49 explain why substances with giant covalent structures are solids with high melting and boiling points, 1:50 explain how the structures of diamond, graphite and C, 1:51 know that covalent compounds do not usually conduct electricity, 1:52 (Triple only) know how to represent a metallic lattice by a 2-D diagram, 1:53 (Triple only) understand metallic bonding in terms of electrostatic attractions, 1:54 (Triple only) explain typical physical properties of metals, including electrical conductivity and malleability, 1:55 (Triple only) understand why covalent compounds do not conduct electricity, 1:56 (Triple only) understand why ionic compounds conduct electricity only when molten or in aqueous solution, 1:57 (Triple only) know that anion and cation are terms used to refer to negative and positive ions respectively, 1:58 (Triple only) describe experiments to investigate electrolysis, using inert electrodes, of molten compounds (including lead(II) bromide) and aqueous solutions (including sodium chloride, dilute sulfuric acid and copper(II) sulfate) and to predict the products, 1:59 (Triple only) write ionic half-equations representing the reactions at the electrodes during electrolysis and understand why these reactions are classified as oxidation or reduction, 1:60 (Triple only) practical: investigate the electrolysis of aqueous solutions, (a) Group 1 (alkali metals) – lithium, sodium and potassium, 2:01 understand how the similarities in the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water provide evidence for their recognition as a family of elements, 2:02 understand how the differences between the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with air and water provide evidence for the trend in reactivity in Group 1, 2:03 use knowledge of trends in Group 1 to predict the properties of other alkali metals, 2:04 (Triple only) explain the trend in reactivity in Group 1 in terms of electronic configurations, (b) Group 7 (halogens) – chlorine, bromine and iodine, 2:05 know the colours, physical states (at room temperature) and trends in physical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine, 2:06 use knowledge of trends in Group 7 to predict the properties of other halogens, 2:07 understand how displacement reactions involving halogens and halides provide evidence for the trend in reactivity in Group 7, 2:08 (Triple only) explain the trend in reactivity in Group 7 in terms of electronic configurations, 2:09 know the approximate percentages by volume of the four most abundant gases in dry air, 2:10 understand how to determine the percentage by volume of oxygen in air using experiments involving the reactions of metals (e.g. Dip the glass rod or straw into the first solution and transfer a drop of it to the first piece of universal indicator paper. When universal indicator is added to a solution, the color change can indicate the approximate pH of the solution. Universal Indicator Definition A particular type of acid-base indicator is a universal indicator, which is a mixture of multiple indicators that gradually changes color over a wide pH range. To all the test tubes, add 4 to 5 drops of the universal indicator solution and observe the appearance of colour, if any. Find an indicator for the titration of a 0.100 M solution of a weak acid \(\ce{HA}\) (\(K_a = 6.2 \times 10^{-6}\)) with 0.100 M \(\ce{NaOH}\) solution. Indicators are used in titration solutions to signal the completion of the acid-base reaction. The colour it changes indicates not only if the substance is an acid or alkali, but its position on the pH scale. They are similar, yet distinctly different in application. phosphorus) with air, 2:11 describe the combustion of elements in oxygen, including magnesium, hydrogen and sulfur, 2:12 describe the formation of carbon dioxide from the thermal decomposition of metal carbonates, including copper(II) carbonate, 2:13 know that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and that increasing amounts in the atmosphere may contribute to climate change, 2:14 Practical: determine the approximate percentage by volume of oxygen in air using a metal or a non-metal, 2:15 understand how metals can be arranged in a reactivity series based on their reactions with: water and dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acid, 2:16 understand how metals can be arranged in a reactivity series based on their displacement reactions between: metals and metal oxides, metals and aqueous solutions of metal salts, 2:17 know the order of reactivity of these metals: potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, copper, silver, gold, 2:18 know the conditions under which iron rusts, 2:19 understand how the rusting of iron may be prevented by: barrier methods, galvanising and sacrificial protection, 2:20 in terms of gain or loss of oxygen and loss or gain of electrons, understand the terms: oxidation, reduction, redox, oxidising agent, reducing agent, in terms of gain or loss of oxygen and loss or gain of electrons, 2:21 practical: investigate reactions between dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acids and metals (e.g. This is a color chart for a universal indicator test: 4:49 (Triple only) Understand how to write the structural and displayed formula of a polyester, showing the repeat unit, given the formulae of the monomers from which it is formed, including the reaction of ethanedioic acid and ethanediol: 4:50 (Triple only) know that some polyesters, known as biopolyesters, are biodegradable, (d) Energy resources and electricity generation, 2:31 know that acids in aqueous solution are a source of hydrogen ions and alkalis in a…, 4:37 (Triple only) know that vinegar is an aqueous solution containing ethanoic acid, 2:48 describe tests for these anions: Cl⁻, Br⁻ and I⁻ using acidified silver nitrate…, 1:56 (Triple only) understand why ionic compounds conduct electricity only when molten or in…, 2:47 describe tests for these cations: NH₄⁺ using sodium hydroxide solution and identifying…, 1:43 Know that ionic compounds do not conduct electricity when solid, but do conduct…, d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases, e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations, b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium, c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine, d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals. It is a mixture of several different indicators. The common application of indicators is the detection of end points of titrations. 2. It is used by scientists in laboratories all the time, as they need to know which substances are acids and which are bases. Students will be able to use a universal indicator to determine the approximate pH of various solutions, and to connect the pH to whether something is acidic or basic. As shown, the pH paper turns a dark blue: baking soda (in solution) is basic.Refer to the table of Universal Indicator Color change (figure 1 in the introduction) for clarification. For use as laboratory reagent. Universal Indicators are made up of a mixture of substances, but common indicators are … A universal indicator which generally covers the full range of pH from 0.00 to 14.00, is a rough approximation of the pH of the solution. Travel theme. Universal Indicator. They are cheap, rapidly produce a result that is good to about a pH unit and can simply be discarded after use. Using the Universal Indicator: You can select the aqueous solution type you want to find the pH value of, from the ‘Select Aqueous Solution’ drop down list (vegetable & fruit juices, household items, acids and bases in the lab or salts in water). It makes no sense whatsoever to buy a cheap imitation if you are doing serious toolmaking. Phenolphthalein's common use is as an indicator in acid-base titrations. Use a small strip (1 cm long) of universal indicator paper for each substance that you will be testing. 2.33 Understand the terms redox, oxidising agent,... 2.32 Understand oxidation and reduction as the add... 2.31 Deduce the position of a metal within the rea... 2.30 Describe how reactions with water and dilute... 2.29 Understand that metals can be arranged in a ... 4.5 Predict the products of reactions between dilu... 2.28 Describe a physical test to show whether wat... 2.27 Describe the use of anhydrous copper(II) sul... 2.26 Describe the combustion of hydrogen. magnesium, zinc and iron), 2:22 (Triple only) know that most metals are extracted from ores found in the Earth’s crust and that unreactive metals are often found as the uncombined element, 2:23 (Triple only) explain how the method of extraction of a metal is related to its position in the reactivity series, illustrated by carbon extraction for iron and electrolysis for aluminium, 2:24 (Triple only) be able to comment on a metal extraction process, given appropriate information, 2:25 (Triple only) explain the uses of aluminium, copper, iron and steel in terms of their properties the types of steel will be limited to low-carbon (mild), high-carbon and stainless, 2:26 (Triple only) know that an alloy is a mixture of a metal and one or more elements, usually other metals or carbon, 2:27 (Triple only) explain why alloys are harder than pure metals, 2:28 describe the use of litmus, phenolphthalein and methyl orange to distinguish between acidic and alkaline solutions, 2:29 understand how to use the pH scale, from 0–14, can be used to classify solutions as strongly acidic (0–3), weakly acidic (4–6), neutral (7), weakly alkaline (8–10) and strongly alkaline (11–14), 2:30 describe the use of Universal Indicator to measure the approximate pH value of an aqueous solution, 2:31 know that acids in aqueous solution are a source of hydrogen ions and alkalis in a aqueous solution are a source of hydroxide ions, 2:32 know that bases can neutralise acids, 2:33 (Triple only) describe how to carry out an acid-alkali titration, 2:34 know the general rules for predicting the solubility of ionic compounds in water: common sodium, potassium and ammonium compounds are soluble, all nitrates are soluble, common chlorides are soluble, except those of silver and lead(II), common sulfates are soluble, except for those of barium, calcium and lead(II), common carbonates are insoluble, except for those of sodium, potassium and ammonium, common hydroxides are insoluble except for those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble), 2:35 understand acids and bases in terms of proton transfer, 2:36 understand that an acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor, 2:37 describe the reactions of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid with metals, bases and metal carbonates (excluding the reactions between nitric acid and metals) to form salts, 2:38 know that metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia can act as bases, and that alkalis are bases that are soluble in water, 2:39 describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt, starting from an insoluble reactant, 2:40 (Triple only) describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt, starting from an acid and alkali, 2:41 (Triple only) describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of an insoluble salt, starting from two soluble reactants, 2:42 practical: prepare a sample of pure, dry hydrated copper(II) sulfate crystals starting from copper(II) oxide, 2:43 (Triple only) practical: prepare a sample of pure, dry lead(II) sulfate, 2:44a describe tests for these gases: hydrogen, carbon dioxide, 2:44 describe tests for these gases: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, 2:45 describe how to carry out a flame test, 2:46 know the colours formed in flame tests for these cations: Li⁺ is red, Na⁺ is yellow, K⁺ is lilac, Ca²⁺ is orange-red, Cu²⁺ is blue-green, 2:47 describe tests for these cations: NH₄⁺ using sodium hydroxide solution and identifying the gas evolved, Cu²⁺, Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ using sodium hydroxide solution, 2:48 describe tests for these anions: Cl⁻, Br⁻ and I⁻ using acidified silver nitrate solution, SO₄²⁻ using acidified barium chloride solution, CO₃²⁻ using hydrochloric acid and identifying the gas evolved, 2:49 describe a test for the presence of water using anhydrous copper(II) sulfate, 2:50 describe a physical test to show whether a sample of water is pure, 3:01 know that chemical reactions in which heat energy is given out are described as exothermic, and those in which heat energy is taken in are described as endothermic, 3:02 describe simple calorimetry experiments for reactions such as combustion, displacement, dissolving and neutralisation, 3:03 calculate the heat energy change from a measured temperature change using the expression Q = mcΔT, 3:04 calculate the molar enthalpy change (ΔH) from the heat energy change, Q, 3:05 (Triple only) draw and explain energy level diagrams to represent exothermic and endothermic reactions, 3:06 (Triple only) know that bond-breaking is an endothermic process and that bond-making is an exothermic process, 3:07 (Triple only) use bond energies to calculate the enthalpy change during a chemical reaction, 3:08 practical: investigate temperature changes accompanying some of the following types of change: salts dissolving in water, neutralisation reactions, displacement reactions and combustion reactions, 3:09 describe experiments to investigate the effects of changes in surface area of a solid, concentration of a solution, temperature and the use of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction, 3:10 describe the effects of changes in surface area of a solid, concentration of a solution, pressure of a gas, temperature and the use of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction, 3:11 explain the effects of changes in surface area of a solid, concentration of a solution, pressure of a gas and temperature on the rate of a reaction in terms of particle collision theory, 3:12 know that a catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a reaction, but is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction, 3:13 know that a catalyst works by providing an alternative pathway with lower activation energy, 3:14 (Triple only) draw and explain reaction profile diagrams showing ΔH and activation energy, 3:15 practical: investigate the effect of changing the surface area of marble chips and of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction between marble chips and dilute hydrochloric acid, 3:16 practical: investigate the effect of different solids on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution, 3:17 know that some reactions are reversible and this is indicated by the symbol ⇌ in equations, 3:18 describe reversible reactions such as the dehydration of hydrated copper(II) sulfate and the effect of heat on ammonium chloride, 3:19 (Triple only) know that a reversible reaction can reach dynamic equilibrium in a sealed container, 3:20 (Triple only) know that the characteristics of a reaction at dynamic equilibrium are: the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate, and the concentrations of reactants and products remain constant, 3:21 (Triple only) understand why a catalyst does not affect the position of equilibrium in a reversible reaction, 3:22 (Triple only) predict, with reasons, the effect of changing either pressure or temperature on the position of equilibrium in a reversible reaction (references to Le Chatelier’s principle are not required), 4:01 know that a hydrocarbon is a compound of hydrogen and carbon only, 4:02 understand how to represent organic molecules using empirical formulae, molecular formulae, general formulae, structural formulae and displayed formulae, 4:03a know what is meant by the term isomerism, 4:03 know what is meant by the terms homologous series, functional group and isomerism, 4:04 understand how to name compounds relevant to this specification using the rules of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature. 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